Cavity Seeking in Companion Parrots

As we begin to search for favorite soup recipes and pull out that beloved afghan, our parrots also change their behavior in response to colder weather and darker days. My own become a bit more obsessed with getting into the bathroom or being on the floor somewhere. I may need to fish one of them out of the closet occasionally.

Today I want to say a few more words about cavity seeking. I did cover this topic in my blog post Companion Parrots and Reproductive Hormones, but I think that a single focus on this topic is worthy. At this time of year especially, we can begin to see an increase in this behavior, which can be both puzzling and aggravating.

What is cavity seeking? I get that question a lot, usually right after I use the term as if everyone knows what it means.

When I did a Google search for these words, I got a lot of information about oral cavities. So, I had to  wonder…am I the only one using this term to describe a particular aspect of parrot behavior? I highly doubt it.  However, while the behavior is as common as parrots vocalizing loudly, the name for this behavior and it’s ramifications are not well-recognized.

What Is Cavity Seeking?

Cavity seeking is behavior sexually mature companion parrots attempt to pursue with the goal of establishing a potential nesting spot (in their perception at least). This appears to be a very strong drive and may occur independently from the presence of any perceived “mate,” although the two usually go hand in hand.

It is typically regarded as cute, slightly quixotic, and harmless. It can also be reinforcing for us when parrots engage in cavity seeking because it keeps them occupied for long periods of time, leaving us free to pursue our own tasks without worrying about the need to provide enrichment.

The Many Faces of Cavity Seeking

What does cavity seeking look like?

The answers to this are extremely diverse, which is why I want to focus exclusively on this topic today. The fact that it so often goes unrecognized is a problem, since it so often leads to an increase in the production of reproductive hormones, which in turn results in resource guarding (territorial aggression), increased vocalizations, and can set the stage for feather damaging behavior (FDB).

Let’s look at a few examples. Here is a photo of one of Chris Shank’s cockatoos. It looks like innocent play, doesn’t it? It’s not. This bird is cavity seeking – checking out a small, dark space even when he has the entire property to explore, being a free-flighted parrot. This same cockatoo often jumps into Chris’ washing machine if he happens to be indoors and the lid is open .

One day, some years ago, we received an urgent visit from the pastor of a local church. One of Chris’ cockatoos had flown down the chimney, apparently investigating it as a possible nest cavity.

This is a topic that Chris and I often find ourselves discussing. For someone like Chris, who free flies her birds outdoors, this behavior can be dangerous. It causes the birds to fly too far afield and stay gone too long. During a few months of the year, her birds are not allowed their typical free flight schedule until this seemingly overcoming urge diminishes. For me, it is more frustrating than it is dangerous for my birds.

Modal Action Patterns

There may be research about this aspect of parrot behavior, but I was unable to find it. As I said, everything that came up was about dental health.

However, I believe this behavior to be a modal action pattern. A modal action pattern is an innate behavior or chain of behaviors that is triggered by a particular stimulus. (These previously were referred to as fixed action patterns, but most are now moving toward the terminology of modal action pattern.)

Adult parrots are undeniably and obsessively attracted to small, dark spaces, round “holes,” and small spaces with darkness behind them. A companion parrot’s interpretation of a suitable nesting site can be pretty broad. Two dimensions can suffice, although a dark surface or dark background adds allure.

Cavity Seeking Examples

A few days ago, I allowed my grey Marko to be in the bathroom while I was in there. She began cavity seeking in a most unexpected way. I have a four-year-old granddaughter and happen to have a toilet seat her size which fits over the standard seat. When not in use, I have it on the counter. The oval shape was stimulating enough for Marko that she immediately began to investigate. No doubt, she would have jumped into the middle of it if I had allowed it to continue.

Many parrots become obsessed with getting into cupboards and drawers. This is often seen as amusing by owners and, therefore, is often encouraged. I once knew someone who had emptied out her kitchen cupboards so that her large macaws could play in them.  My own Marko will sit for hours atop my sock drawer if I leave it open a crack. She stares into that dark slit and chews on the top edge of the drawer.

She was also responsible for the need to replace my closet doors. As you can see, they originally had slats that allowed her to see the darkness behind the doors. Her flight skills were good enough that she could land on the outside of the doors and cling to them as she chewed. Before too long, she had remodeled things to her liking and proceeded to guard the site until I replaced the doors themselves with a mirrored substitute that did not allow for chewing.

Other Examples from Real Life

One client had an exceptionally aggressive little conure. When I visited the home, I immediately recognized conditions that set the stage for her biting behavior. Her cage was located in the dining area with an adjoining kitchen. She regularly got to spend time up on top of the refrigerator. There was also a dark wood bookcase with which she was fascinated. And, she often crawled between the dog kennel and the back of the bar top for seating that separated the kitchen from the area that housed her cage. Once her access to these spots had been eliminated, we were able to make good progress with a behavior modification plan.

Another client regularly allowed his Umbrella Cockatoo to sit in the drawer in his office next to him while he was at work. When I dictated this as “off limits” behavior, he provided her with a playstand.

He reported progress a couple of weeks later, due to the fact that she had begun staying in a corner of the office, chewing on the woodwork. I had to break the news to him that this too was nesting behavior and that he really needed to teach her to remain up on the playstand, as we had agreed. Although the two or three dimensions seen here wouldn’t lead us to think about it as a suitable site for nesting behavior, it was for this parrot.

Many of my clients regularly (until they speak to me at least) provide cardboard boxes for their parrot to play in. Seems harmless, right? Enrichment is good, right? Not in this case.

Such play should never be encouraged. I suggest that anyone reading this should stop this practice immediately. It’s much healthier, from a behavioral standpoint, for a parrot to perch on a well-designed playstand and interact with enrichment there.

Another problem can be the provision of toys and “sleeping huts” sold for birds that encourage cavity seeking behavior. If a parrot spends time in these during the day, I suggest their removal. They are not necessary and can be a real problem.

If your parrot spends any time in a place that results in what we typically call “territorial aggression,” access needs to be prevented. In other words, if your parrot darts out suddenly to bite you from a favored spot, it is likely that she regards it as a potential nest site, no matter how you view it.

Training Solutions

As any of us know who have tried to keep parrots where we want them to be, this can be a struggle. Training/teaching is necessary. Always when we want a parrot to stop a behavior, we must replace it with another, incompatible behavior.

The incompatible behavior for cavity seeking is stationing on acceptable perches. This is not difficult, but it takes consistent, daily effort over a long period of time. It is not nearly as quickly accomplished as training specific behaviors like targeting, for instance.

If your parrot regularly walks on the floor and engages in cavity seeking or regular chewing on baseboards or other wood in places there, he has established a relationship with that dimension of your home. He finds significant reinforcement in that physical location.

Therefore, the solution must be to establish a relationship with the perches you provide. That takes time, so don’t despair. Just keep doing the right things for long enough.

I work on this on a daily basis and see continued improvement. I put walnut pieces in my pocket every morning. I keep these in front of my coffee maker so that I don’t forget (habit stacking).

Every time I walk through my living area where the birds are located, I offer a walnut piece to those birds who are perched where I want them to be (hanging perches, cages, playstands). Mine are fully flighted and have freedom to go where they want at all times, so have many choices available to them.

If they are perched on the refrigerator or the dog kennel door or the floor, they get nothing. You would be amazed at what I have accomplished. Almost always, they are all perched where I want them to be.


As I have said, the real problem with this behavior is that we fail to recognize it, don’t understand the ramifications of allowing a parrot to pursue this activity, and so often accommodate it because it meets our needs.

As an example, I just spoke with a new client whose two greys have “nests” all over the space where they spend their days – cardboard boxes in which they spend time, trash cans, etc. This has never been viewed as a problem. They enjoy this activity and it has appeared to be a good way for them to spend time.

However, the problems to be addressed in this case include screaming, aggression and feather damaging behavior – all of which result from such activities. It will be impossible to address these until this behavior is replaced with the behaviors of perching up higher and interacting with enrichment in those places.

It is never happy to find yourself in this position. So, let’s clean this up right now before things get worse! I would love to hear from you. Is this something that you struggle with? Let’s all share what we know about this problem and help each other to find more solutions. Please provide a comment here on or Facebook, where you will find this post on both of my pages, Pamela Clark and The Parrot Steward.

Thank you for reading my blog. I am Pamela Clark, an IAABC Certified Parrot Behavior Consultant. My passion is helping people with their parrots and offer behavior consultations to that end, as well as publishing information you can trust. To access free resources, schedule a consultation, subscribe to my newsletter (a different publication from this blog, or purchase my webinars, please visit Until next time!

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Pamela Clark, CPBC

I am an IAABC Certified parrot behavior consultant who successfully helps parrot owners to resolve behavior problems and train their parrots. I also help determine the best diet, social and physical environments to help that individual parrot flourish.

18 thoughts on “Cavity Seeking in Companion Parrots”

  1. Cavity seeking is a daily issue—I cannot fathom or anticipate some of the places—and training to station has alleviated many attacks and behavior issues. When I enter the room, the birds station. They get treats. I clear out the nesting sites as they station and dole out treats. Yeah, didn’t save me right away but well worth training every single day. Think I have 11 flighted birds…Several different groupings in different rooms.

    1. I love this comment! I have exactly the same experience – 11 flighted parrots in different groupings. Cockatiel, budgie and two Amazons in my office (which was supposed to be the “bird-free” room). Six greys and a Moluccan in the rest of the house (which is only two rooms). As you can imagine, I don’t have many visitors:)

      Stationing saves me as well, although the daily struggle continues. Keeping them from getting under the bed has been the hardest. I finally put two wardrobe boxes under there and that has helped. I just moved the bed so that there is more “open space” around it – so far that works well. I keep the greys out of the bathroom – learned that one after they chewed up some of the flooring. Geeez! The battle continues. Thanks for commenting. It makes me feel better to know that I am not alone:)

  2. I don’t allow my Jardines to go into cavities; however, my plucker loves to spend time chewing up the junk mail in a corner of the kitchen counter. She has become territorial about this area. Paper shredding seems like a good activity but in this case it has become a hormonal activity. Should I just change the location of the junk mail so she can shred it in a more open spot?

    1. Janine,

      Thank you SO much for your comment. Good for you for identifying this behavior in the kitchen as a problem! You’re not the first one to describe this exact behavior to me. Kitchens seem to be a prime area for this type of behavior, likely because we spend so much time in there ourselves perhaps. I would say that paper shredding is a good activity, but only if performed up on a perch. And, you may find that her interest in this wanes if she doesn’t have a corner in which to be while she chews. Perhaps you could give her a paper and cardboard project up on a playstand or in a cage if she spends much time in there. Do you have my Enrichment Pamphlet? You can find it here: It is 38 pages that offer complete instructions for 20 different toys that you can make from materials readily found around the home. I hope this helps! And, again, thank you for sharing this with me and others. It helps us all to feel that we are not alone:)


  3. I have enjoyed putting a tent over my bent legs and letting my 22 year old blue fronted Amazon explore it. She LOVED it. Well, after reading your article, I guess I’ll have to stop that! But it is one of the few things she has seemed really happy with!

    Her first owner hand fed her when tiny and kept her wings clipped. She was trained to sit and do nothing. She probably had limited time with bird parents, didn’t learn to fly, and didn’t learn how to play with toys, chew, or forage. However we are quite attached to each other. Her main joy in life is to sit on my left shoulder and keep me company all day, and I enjoy her too. I do have four perches around the house I put her on as I go about my day.

    I wish she would become interested in toys and foraging. Spending 15 minutes in her tent made her SO happy, but I guess I need to find something else for her. She isn’t a chewer except for one toy I just found recently.

    Last year, I ordered a three sided tent that I got– figuring it would keep her warmer at night during the winter. I never did train her on it, and it’s not something she wants to enter. I guess that’s out too?

    How do you teach a bird to play and forage?

    1. Dear Laurie,

      Yep. The tent is out too:) She doesn’t need to be warmer at night. She’s warm enough if she’s acclimated to the temperatures of your home and it sounds like she certainly is.

      It’s possible to actually train a bird to interact with enrichment. The first step is to find ANYTHING that she will interact with. Some birds like paper. Some like cardboard. Some like fabric. Some like thinner wood that is usually put on the toys that are sold for big birds like yours.

      Then, once you find anything that she will interact with, you provide her with reinforcement (rewards) for doing so.

      It sounds like you might benefit from my Enrichment Pamphlet. It has 20 different toys that you can make at home, most from things that you would throw away anyway. It also has instructions for one of the toys, from step one to the end for birds that don’t know how to forage. It also has really simple toys, like just a whole roll of toilet paper. You can find it here:

      If birds are afraid of new things, you may have to desensitize them to them first. Please let me know if you would like to do a one-on-one coaching session by video. Inf oration about my consulting services is available on my website. Just scroll down on the home page:

      My best to you!


  4. Thank you so much for talking about this behavior. I cannot tell you how many people think it’s fine to give a parrot a cardboard box to play in. I know better and will break them down and cut them up into pieces and put them on a skewer so chewing can be enjoyed but cavity seeking is no longer a problem. Even I messed up a few years ago with two of my female Amazons who are bonded. I tell this story often because this behavior can be deadly! I had some boxes in the corner of our living room next to an open cage that they have access to and they were having so much fun in their “boxed condo” that I just let them. That and a little bit of “I’ll get to it later” attitude and I had a Double Yellow Headed Amazon who was egg bound. I was very lucky to have even caught it because she wasn’t showing any signs being egg bound. The vets tried to remove it surgically and accidentally cut her intestine. She was incredibly lucky to even survive the repair but we still had the egg to deal with. They removed it through the cloaca successfully but it was so hard on her, a 19 year old who had never laid an egg before. Then she developed pneumonia after that. We spent most of the summer in and out of the vet school dealing with the problem of a single egg, caused by laziness and a few boxes. I was so lucky she recovered and we haven’t had a single problem ever since I made sure that no more cardboard boxes were available for my girls!:)

    1. Dear Jennifer,

      Thank you so much for taking the time to write this. Your message broke my heart. I’ve been there. Not with one of my own birds, thankfully, but as a vet tech I cared for many egg bound birds. As you know, this is always a life threatening situation…expensive for the owner and heartbreaking, even if the bird does survive. I wish I could get everyone to read your message. I’m so glad to hear that she recovered!

      I certainly don’t see this situation as one in which you messed up. It’s hard keeping a balance with birds. There’s always so much to do. So many messes to clean up. I could easily see this happening here. I’m pretty vigilant, but it’s challenging keeping up with the prevention of this behavior.

      Again, thanks so much for sharing your story. Consider yourself hugged:)


  5. I have a 10 yr old sun conure. We cuddle at night while I read a book…before I get drowsy he/she is put in his/her sleep cage. Sunny usually settles down and sleeps. Should this also be stopped because of cavity seeking? As a baby, Sunny would climb into my shirt but that is extremely rare now. I mention this because it is often described as simply a sun conure thing. I am looking forward to your thoughts.

    1. Mary,

      Thank you so much for your comments and questions. If I were in your shoes, I would stop the cuddling. There are several species who like to crawl into people’s clothes; it is very common amoung sun conures. However, it is those close physical moments that stimulate a pair bond to form. Once a pair bond is in place, you can expect to encounter some problems – aggression, screaming, and feather damaging behavior. On the other hand, you can decrease the impact of the pair bond on behavior by doing a whole lot of training. It’s your call of course.


  6. I am the same person who just commented. I just read your article The Inconvenient Truth about Cockatoos and thought I should add a bit more information that may, or may not, change what you have to say. I do have another bird, IRN. Both birds get along well, flighted, multiple play areas, toys, foraging areas, own sleep cages. They do spend some time on my shoulder. I can touch their beaks, and give some scratches to top of the sun conures head. IRN lets me touch top of head. Neither was hand tame when I got them. Should they spend no time on shoulder? I do target training. I do not pet them and have no need for that but wanted to be able to handle them, ie) towel them, if God forbid they were ever injured. I thought it would decrease their stress in that situation or for their occasional health checks with vet. Glad I found you blog and even happier I went against all the advice regarding why I needed to clip their wings! Thank-you for providing so much needed information! Will be looking for information about the webinars you mentioned and ensuring others know about your site!

    1. Mary, Thank you for the kind words. I’m glad that the blog has been useful. As to time on the shoulder, it’s hard to make black and white recommendations. I allow my own birds on my shoulder when they request that, but for no longer than 5 minutes, and that happens no more often than once a day for some and never for others. Pair bonding is a possible consequence of “shoulder time” but beyond that, I want to encourage independence. I’d rather they were outdoors, or interacting with conspecifics, or foraging….rather than hanging out on my shoulder. So, I’m pretty strict about this with my birds. It sounds however, like you have a good balance going there. As I said…it’s your call.


      1. Thank- you for such a quick reply. I shall decrease the cuddling with the sun conure and eliminate it over a period of a couple weeks. Is this ok? I am thinking about not stressing him too much by the change. Or is this not likely? The birds are definitely not Velcro birds but they do spend more than 5 minutes a couple times a day on my shoulder. I will decrease this as well and do more training etc. Although there are no issues at this time, I have read sad stories written by people who “suddenly” have problems when there birds are 15, 20, 25 yrs etc. It seems apparent that many of us try to feed appropriately to avoid future health problems, but the information to prevent future behavioural problems may just be beginning to trickle down. I have been applauded by my avian vet staff for recognizing my birds emotional needs for contact with a flock. And yes, I have definitely enjoyed the feelings of joy that my birds trust me and want to spend time that close to me. I do believe the staff, like many others online, did not mean to mislead me. But what I have read in your articles, your guest writers articles, and the comment sections makes a lot of sense to me. I made the decision to allow my birds to fly because they are birds. I am glad these articles refocused me so that I do not entangle/confuse my likes and needs with theirs. I am sure your insightful words have saved ‘us’ from future emotional turmoil. I have wanted to add another bird, but I thought, from reading online that this would likely be a disaster as I acquired these two at the same time, many years ago. I now wonder if increasing the flock numbers by one or two would in fact be beneficial if done carefully and appropriately. I am hoping I will find articles on your blog about this and many other topics. I am new to the world of blogging. Is there a place to do a ‘search,’ ( I have not noticed one), or do I just scroll through the articles? Thank-you so much, especially for the generous amount of space you allow for comments. 😉

  7. Mary,

    It is comments like yours that make what I do worthwhile. I’m so glad that the blogs have made a difference. I think that gradually decreasing the cuddle time makes sense. In general, I think that we worry too much about creating stress for our parrots, in that so many of us become over-protective when it comes to introducing new experiences. However, whenever we make changes, doing so gradually is a kindness, especially if we are decreasing an activity that they have found enriching. And, in fact, as you have anticipated, it’s necessary to replace that activity with something equally enriching, like training. I enjoy contemplating a bird’s activity budget. If part of the “activity budget” has been spent cudding before bed, then it should be replace with another reinforcing activity, although that does not have to take place at the same time. I’d like to extend an offer to you. I also publish a newsletter that is also sent out every two weeks. In the last newsletter, I offered to subscribers the chance to have a 20 minute conversation free of charge for the purpose of asking questions. If you would like to take advantage of this, I’d be delighted. Just email me at and we will set it up. It might be a good change to discuss the question of adding other birds. As to the ability to search, there is a search function on the blog. When you first pull the blog up ( there is a search function on the left hand side of the screen.



    1. Pam you are such a kind and generous person. I have read many more of your articles and links, and I have no idea where you find the time to work at a clinic, maintain your blog and Facebook pages, attend and teach at seminars, reply to questions, fix computers, look after you flock, assist with other people’s flocks, and hopefully feed and care for yourself along the way! Not to mention, there are obviously so many other things you must do…and perhaps some relaxation once in a while??? Selfishly, to ensure forever happy homes for my birds I will contact you shortly. Perhaps, I should also add, IF, I get any more birds, it will be after learning from the experience and knowledge you and others so willingly share here, after finally making an outdoor flight, and I can confidently add, after paying you for at least 1 consultation solely on that matter. My promise to you, myself, and the birds involved. Thank you once more for your time!

  8. I thank you for another thought-provoking and helpful article, Pam. I took interest in the nutritional health of my flock from the start. It just made sense. I took interest in their behaviors to a lesser degree, only as a necessary aspect of living with them and simple curiosity. I never considered “managing” their overall behaviors like I do their nutrition; but, it makes perfect sense now.

    I think most of us only consider parrot behaviors when there is one we dislike or is concerning–and we want to affect it and be done. I suspect two extremes in parrots as “pets”. First, eventual hormonal behavior from unwittingly encouraging the bird to pair-bond with us, or “too much love”. Second, the poor birds that truly do not get enough love. Both are problematic.

    I now see that an overall healthy parrot is in between. It takes a good bit of learning to be able to get the parrot’s daily life to be “in between” too much and not enough love, managing nutrition and behaviors, through training, enrichment, flight, liberty, choice, etc.

    Your ever-present holistic view is so very helpful in beginning to the see the light after 15 months of living with a small flock, as I bounce around through your writings. Being observant, curious, thoughtful, and reading a lot, I still find myself needing to make many changes for the long-term benefit of the flock and myself. I sincerely appreciate the guidance you provide.

  9. First of all I’d like to say I am sorry to everyone reading this post for my bad english. I am an italian vet (but I don’t treat birds so I have no experience about parrots). Last november the police gave me an african grey male about twenty years old that was found nearby my clinic and that noboby had claimed for. Otello (he said this was his name) unfortunatly cannot fly because of a permanent damage in his right wing. He lives in my clinic from monday to saturday morning and he comes to my home during the weekends. He eats some fruits, few vegetables, pellets, he likes very much whole wheat pasta but I don’t give him too much. Only few days after his rescue he showed a pair-bond behavior toward me but I didn’t think it was something bad or dangerous for him so I let him stay on my shoulder or regurgitate on my fingers. After having read your article now I understand the inherent dangers of such behavior and Iunderstand why he loves certain little dark corners. Altough he is almost never alone when in his cage looking at me visiting patients and spends some hours both in the morning and in the afternoon out of the cage, I have few time to spend training him. I’ll try to teach him stationing on the perch but I think I’ll have some difficulties because I haven’t found yet a treat he craves for so much. Could you advice me how to find a treat that let me reinforce the right behaviors? I’d like to have some conversations with you but I’m afraid not to understand your answers due to my poor listening comprehension of the english language. Thank you so much for your patience and compliments for your interesting blog!

    1. Hello Sandro,

      Thank you so much for your comment. Finding a reinforcer can be as simple as just asking yourself what the parrot likes most. If he likes WW pasta, you can simply use this only for training. You can cook some rigatoni, lightly coat it with olive oil, freeze it on a cookie sheet and then store in the freezer, defrosting a few at a time. To use as a reinforcer, you hold one piece up and the parrot gets to take one bite. He does NOT get the whole piece of rigatoni, lol! If there is any other type of table food that he likes, these foods too might be useful for the same purpose.

      If he gets any nuts or seeds as treats, you can merely take those out of the diet and use these for reinforcers. If he is not familiar with these foods, you can do what I call a “treat interview.” Go to the grocery store and purchase a small quantity of raw walnuts, pecans, cashews, almonds, pine nuts, dry roasted, unsalted peanuts, and sunflower seeds (both in and out of the shell). Into a separate dish, put one small piece of each. Your grey may not eat any of these at first if he is visually unfamiliar with them. Give him time. Every morning, just make sure that the dish contains all of these items.

      At some point, he will begin to sample the foods. When you see this, get prepared to document on a day when you can stay at home. Do the same thing that morning – one piece of each in the dish. After 20 to 30 minutes, go over to see what is missing. Those items will be your reinforcers.

      As to consulting, I do consult with people all over the world. I have a client in Norway who also feels that her spoken English is not good enough for Zoom sessions. She and I do everything by writing and with videos. I would be happy to explore that option if you wish.

      My best to you!


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