Parrots and Neophobic Behavior

Photo courtesy of Nyla Copp

I would be a rich woman if I had a dollar for every time that a parrot’s owner has told me that she had given away a playstand or toy that her parrot didn’t like. We’ve all had this experience, right? We bring home a perch or new toy, excited to introduce it to our bird, only to find that she won’t go anywhere near it.

Too often, when seeing this reaction, we assume that the parrot doesn’t like it. Thus, today I want to discuss yet another aspect of parrot behavior that is largely misunderstood – neophobia.

What Is Neophobia?

Neophobia can be defined as an extreme or irrational fear or dislike of anything new or unfamiliar. Parrots, generally speaking, display neophobic tendencies. This is why they so often reject new things – not because they don’t like them.

This is often blamed upon the fact that parrots are prey animals. However, this assumption is incorrect. This same behavior has been observed in virtually all species of mammals and birds,  including some raptors. (Greenberg, 2003) Many animals show an aversion to novelty.

Neophobia is usually observed in adult parrots. Young parrots tend instead to be neophilic – they eagerly explore new items in their environment. (Greenberg, 2003) When I used to breed African Grey parrots, I often thought of those babies as learning machines. They immediately and joyfully investigated anything new.

Factors Influencing Neophobic Behavior

This behavior has long been observed and studied across species lines, including fish and amphibians among others. However, investigations have been conducted by both psychologists and behavioral ecologists, each from a different perspective. Due to these different orientations, both fields have gathered conflicting results. (Greggor et al, 2015)

That said, however, one conclusion recurs in the research – the level of novelty to which a young parrot is exposed during its early developmental phases has a direct impact upon that same bird’s willingness to accept new things as an adult.

A study done with Orange-winged Amazons confirm this. Interestingly, this study found that exposure to the baby’s parents (parent-rearing vs. hand-rearing vs. co-parenting) had no impact upon later neophobic behavior. It was the level of novelty to which the birds were exposed in early life that had the biggest impact. (Fox, & Millam, 2004)

Another study found that species that typically inhabit more complex habitats, such as the edges of forests, tended to accept novel items more quickly. ( Mettke-Hofmann, 2002 ) Yet another concluded that neophobic responses tended to be lower in wild-caught birds. (Crane, 2017) These findings both underscore the impact of exposure to novelty in early development.

Ramifications of Neophobia for Companion Parrots

This is an important topic because your reaction to your parrots’ neophobic behavior has a big impact upon the quality of life that she will have in the future. If you give away a toy or playstand every time your bird reacts to it with fear, the amount of enrichment she has available will shrink and she will have fewer options for interaction. Fewer choices result in a decreased quality of life.

This can’t be allowed. Now only does it narrow a parrot’s future choices, but anecdotal experience would indicate that having this natural fear response reinforced may create more fear responses in the future. Your parrot will enter a behavioral tunnel.

Further, we have evidence that, once the initial fear response toward an item has been overcome, animals engage in just as much exploration of it as those who showed no fear initially. (University of Lincoln, 2017) This indicates how valuable it can be to a parrot if we are willing to engage in just a little bit of training.

The Necessary Approach

We know that the initial fear of a novel item tends to diminish with exposure. However, it is not acceptable to simply put a new item near to a parrot and expect him to “get over it!”  Using this approach is not ethical and is a form of flooding. As defined by Friedman, “With flooding the subject is presented with the highly feared object or situation which is not removed until the fear diminishes. The response that is prevented in this case is escape.” (Friedman, 2002)

Have you ever heard of The Five Freedoms? This concept was proposed by the UK’s Farm Animal Welfare Council in order to establish guidelines that could be used to assess quality of life. It states that “animals should be free (1) from thirst, hunger and malnutrition, (2) from discomfort, (3) from pain, injury and disease, (4) to express natural behaviors, and (5) from fear and distress.” (Rodríguez-López, 2016)

This was written to be used for farm animals; a similar set of guidelines for companion parrots might be more complex. However, it is of note that freedom from fear and distress has been included along with freedom from injury, pain, and hunger.

It is a primary right of all animals to be free from fear and distress.  Thus, we must use methods other than direct continued exposure to new things without regard for the parrots reaction. Thankfully, we have more ethical, scientifically proven, methods for behavior modification that will help our parrots to overcome this aversion to new things.

The Introduction of New Things

First, I will say that the methods discussed below should be used to introduce items that will create a better quality of life for your parrot by allowing an increased number of choices for interaction – playstands, perches, foraging options, toys, travel carriers, outdoor aviaries, etc.

Other items, not necessary to quality of life, are best avoided. Just don’t bring the helium balloons home. If you must bring a ladder into the house, put the parrot into a different room first. If your friend comes in wearing a baseball cap that scares your parrot, ask him to take if off. Don’t paint your fingernails bright red if you don’t normally wear nail polish. Believe me, none of these things will matter to you in 10 years.

The methods that work best for teaching acceptance of new things are (1) a combination of systematic desensitization and counter conditioning (DS/CC) and (2) Constructional Aversion Treatment. Anyone can learn to use these techniques to successfully introduce new enrichment items, all the while allowing the bird to maintain a distress-free experience. All that is required are patience and persistence and the ability to read body language.

Systematic Desensitization and Counter Conditioning

Systematic desensitization and counter conditioning (DS/CC) are usually used in combination with each other. However in some cases, such as the introduction of a new toy, desensitization may be all that is required.

Systematic desensitization is training during which your parrot is exposed to an item at a level at or below which fear is displayed.   In other words, “the bird is slowly presented with tolerable amounts or durations of the feared object or condition. The bird is never allowed to experience a high level of fear.” (Friedman, 2002) For example, the distance between the parrot and the object might be decreased as the parrot’s body language suggests that the closer proximity of the item no longer elicits fear.

Counter conditioning is used to change the parrot’s attitude toward a feared item by pairing it with something of value, such as a preferred food. In other words, through this pairing the bird learns to regard the new item as something that is desirable. The result of this training is that the previously fearful response is completely resolved and your bird will continue to interact happily with this item in the future.

Example: Introduction of a New Toy

You have a new toy that you want to hang in the cage, but as soon as your parrot sees it he leans away, obviously scared of it. You can use desensitization to introduce it successfully:

  • Hold the toy no higher than about chest height where it is visible to your parrot and move far enough away that he shows no signs of fear.
  • Slowly walk toward him, one step at a time, carefully observing his body language.
  • At the first sign of alarm, stop approaching and take one step backward.
  • Put the toy somewhere at that distance, at a level below your parrot’s typical perching height, so that he can easily see it. (A TV tray works well for this.)
  • Every day or so, move the toy a little closer to your parrot. If you ever see a sign of alarm when you do so, put the toy back at the last distance and allow your bird to look at it a little longer at that proximity.
  • When you’ve been able to move the toy right next to the cage, hang it on the outside of the cage down low.
  • Move it up to the middle of the cage, still on the outside.
  • Move it up to the height at which you would like to eventually have the toy.
  • Move the toy inside the cage.

It is vital that you observe your bird’s body language carefully during this process and that you use the information you collect to adopt a “red light, green light” approach. Any sign of distress from your bird serves as a red light – you go back to the last proximity. Comfortable body language is your green light to leave it at that distance.

This is an example in which counter conditioning may not be necessary. If your bird regularly plays with other toys, we might assume that he would accept this one for interaction once he is comfortable having it in his enclosure. At this point, interacting with the toy itself would be reinforcing.

Example: Introduction of a New Playstand

Desensitization to a new playstand can be accomplished in the same manner, if space limitations allow for this. In other words, you would move the stand closer and closer to the cage as your parrot’s body language allowed you to do so.

Photo courtesy of David Hull

If they did not, you must still begin by having the stand in the same room for a period that allows your parrot to become comfortable with its appearance.

If you were able to gradually move the stand right up next to the cage, as in the toy example, counter conditioning can be quite simple. You can place interesting toys, along with a variety of highly valued food items, on the stand and simply allow your parrot to explore it on his own. At this point, you should be able to locate the stand anywhere and have the ability to place your parrot onto it. (As an aside, travel carriers can be introduced in the same way.)

If space limitations do not allow for this type of introduction, you can quite easily counter condition your parrot to accept the new stand, as long as your parrot steps up without reserve. Try it this way:

  • First, make sure that the stand is located far enough away from your parrot that he shows no fear of it.
  • Ask your parrot to step up and offer a highly valued food item that is small in size (no bigger than about the size of ½ pine nut or smaller).
  • After he eats it, take a step closer to the playstand and watch his body language carefully.
    • If he reacts in any way that indicates distress, move back to your initial spot and spend a few more minutes at that distance, simply offering one treat after another.
    • If he shows no distress, spend a minute or two there, offering treats.
  • Take another step closer and repeat this process until you can get all the way up to the playstand. (This will likely not occur all in one training session, but that’s fine; simply pick up where you left off the next time.)
  • When you have been able to walk all the way up to the playstand, you can begin to teach him to step onto it. At this point, you may find that your progress slows a bit; this is natural – stepping up onto it requires more from your parrot than simply walking towards it!
  • Hold your treat at a point such that your parrot just has to lean over the stand in order to reach it. Do this enough times that you see no hesitation at all to perform this behavior.
  • Next, hold the treat at such a distance that your bird has to just put one foot onto the stand in order to reach it. Again, repeat this enough times that your parrot is 100% comfortable.
  • Now, move the treat just enough that your parrot can’t reach it unless he has to step onto the stand with both feet. As soon as he does, allow him to come right back to your hand – don’t expect him to spend any time there yet!
  • Now begins another phase – making sure that he’s comfortable staying there. Some parrots might immediately be quite comfortable on the new stand; others may take a bit of convincing.
  • Therefore, gradually ask your parrot to spend first one minute, then two, then three…and so on, standing on the new perch. Use your “red light, green light” approach. Feed reinforcers the whole time he stays there.
  • At some point, your parrot will happily step onto the new stand and enjoy spending time there.

Congratulations! What you have accomplished is huge! Your parrot now has one more location in which to comfortably perch, a really big improvement in his quality of life.

Constructional Aversion Treatment (CAT)

I mentioned this training technique previously, in my blog post about Dash, an extremely aggressive dog. This approach was originally called Constructional Aggression Treatment, but is equally effective for the resolution of fearful behavior.

From the few resources I find, I might conclude that it is still not widely recognized for the incredibly fast results it can produce when implemented correctly. I include it here because it is so incredibly helpful in a wide variety of contexts to fairly quickly make significant progress. I have very successfully used it to address fearful behavior toward the owner herself, fear of hands, fear of new toys and fear of new perches.

One caveat: it may be best if you seek the help of a behavior professional before attempting to use this strategy. It requires more sensitivity to and accuracy in reading body language, than the methods of DS/CC explained above. I have consulted remotely with clients in using this and found that some struggled due to difficulties reading body language. This was corrected when they provided videos for my review. Another pair of eyes was necessary for success. Thus, your best chance with this is to have a coach.   

Example: Introduction of a New Toy Using CAT

  • Hold the toy in a spot where it is clearly visible to the parrot, but lower than she is perched. Make sure that the spot you choose elicits no signs of distress in your bird toward the toy. If you do see a fearful reaction, move back until this dissipates completely.
  • Take one step toward your parrot and observe body language.
  • If she looks completely relaxed, take another step.
  • Continue in this way until you do see a reaction. The goal is to be so observant that you catch the earliest signs of alarm – perhaps she stands up a little straighter or looks a bit more intensely at the toy. (If she moves away from you, it’s likely that you missed earlier signs.)
  • When you see this reaction, stay put and don’t move but continue to observe body language.
  • Watch for any sign of increased comfort – an eye blink, turn of the head, more relaxed body posture or feather position.
  • When you see this, immediately turn and walk back to your original position.
  • Approach again, using this same technique, repeatedly during a single training session. If you are doing this correctly, you will find that you are able to approach closer with each repetition or two, while your parrot remains distress-free.
  • When you can walk with the toy right up to the parrot, you will likely be able to simply put it directly into the cage.

Example: Introduction of a New Playstand Using CAT

  • This might, on the surface, appear similar to the counter conditioning approach described above. However, the significant difference is that no food reinforcers are used.
  • With the parrot on your hand, begin at a distance from the perch at which your bird shows no signs of concern.
  • Approach slowly, one step at a time, carefully observing body language.
  • Stop at the very first sign of alarm.
  • Watch for any slight indication of reduced distress/ more relaxation and immediately walk back to your starting position.
  • Repeat using the same technique until you are able to walk all the way up to the perch.
  • At this point, you can begin to use reinforcers to teach the parrot to step onto it, as described previously.

Conclusion

Neophobia is normal behavior for any adult parrot. Therefore, we should anticipate fearful reactions to new things.

That said, however, it is not difficult to introduce new toys, perches and other items to parrots if the correct approaches are used. Best methods always minimize the parrot’s stress levels during the process.

For ethical reasons, as well as those related to quality of life, we should never (1) force a new object into a parrot’s space when signs are evident that this is causing distress, nor (2) eliminate objects from the parrot’s environment if these have the chance of creating greater quality of life once accepted.

Systematic desensitization, counter conditioning, and Constructional Aversion Treatment are all effective methods for addressing the typical neophobia so often seen in parrots.  These methods can be used by anyone, but best success may be achieved with an experienced behavior professional guiding your efforts. If you want to go it alone, your success will be dependent upon accurate assessment of your own parrot’s body language and responding appropriately.

References:

Crane, Adam L & Ferrari Maud C.O. 2017. “Patterns of predator neophobia: a meta-analytic review.” 284. Proc. R. Soc. http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.0583

Fox, Rebbecca A & Millam, James R. 2004. “The Effect of Early Environment on Neophobia in Orange-winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica).” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 89, 117-129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2004.05.002

Friedman, Susan G. “Alternatives to Parrot Breaking.” Behavior Works. http://www.behaviorworks.org/files/articles/Alternatives%20to%20Parrot%20Breaking%202002.pdf

Greenberg, R. 2003. “The Role of Neophobia and Neophilia in the Development of Innovative Behavior of Birds.” Chapter 8. https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/8197/85f5c7eb-2e6f-4cac-9707-e49215495ca6.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Greggor, Alison L, Thornton, Alex & Clayton, Nicola S. 2015. “Neophobia is not only avoidance: improving neophobia tests by combining cognition and ecology.” Science Direct, 6, 82-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.10.007

Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia, Winkler, Hans & Leisler, Bernd. (2002). “The Significance of Ecological Factors for Exploration and Neophobia in Parrots.” Ethology, v.108, 249-272 (2002). 108. 10.1046/j.1439-0310.2002.00773.x.

Rodríguez-López, R. (2016). “Environmental enrichment for parrot species: Are we squawking up the wrong tree?” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 180, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2016.04.016

University of Lincoln. (2017). “Touchscreen test reveals why some birds are quicker to explore than others.” ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 5, 2019 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170710103435.htm

Thank you for reading my blog. I am Pamela Clark, an IAABC Certified Parrot Behavior Consultant. My passion is helping people with their parrots and offer behavior consultations to that end. To access free resources, schedule a consultation, subscribe to my newsletter (a different publication from this blog, or purchase my webinars, please visit http://www.pamelaclarkonline.com. Until next time!

Atherosclerosis: The Hidden Killer

Atherosclerosis is a common disease in companion parrots – one we must all take seriously. If you have ever heard of an older parrot who died suddenly, without apparent cause, there is a good chance that this progressive disease was a primary factor in the demise.

What is Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is one type of arteriosclerosis.  The word atherosclerosis derives from the Greek words athero, which means “gruel or porridge,” and sclerosis, which means “hardness.” This is a fairly descriptive term for the disease itself, in which cholesterol is deposited onto the sides of arteries, creating hard plaques. Once build-up is great enough, plaques can dislodge; these cause blockages, which lead to heart attack.

It is primarily a disease of inflammation. The more inflammation, the greater the risk of atherosclerosis.Blue and Gold by Engin Akyurt

Birds are more susceptible to atherosclerosis than any mammal, with the exception of humans. “The reported incidence rates in avian species range widely from 1.9% to 91.9%.”(Powers, 2015)

A Confusion of Information

While much is known about atherosclerosis in humans, this information cannot be readily transferred with reliability to birds. Reading through scientific papers about the disease causes consternation and befuddlement. Undeniable conclusions are lacking, although more recent research does point to strong correlations.

Much of the research has been done on bird species other than parrots, such as quail, waterfowl, and chickens. Diagnosis on parrot species who have succumbed to this illness has been conducted on a very mixed population, particularly those kept previously in zoos, who have been maintained under a variety of conditions and fed a mix of diets.

Moreover, the studies that are being done on risk factors that exist for parrots are being performed on the known risk factors for humans and other mammals. There may, however, be other risk factors specific to avian species that may take longer to uncover, such as individual species’ genetics.

Thus, I will warn you that what I write today may well be something I will edit extensively in another five years.  The danger is significant and real for our parrots, so an examination now of what we know is important. However, I have every expectation that some of what you read below may be proved wrong in the future, while additional details will in turn come to light.

Which Parrots Are At Risk?

While we have a very good understanding of risk factors in mammals, this is not so with parrots. But, a few things we do know.

Speciesparrot-2005767__340

It is currently agreed that Amazon parrots, African Grey parrots, quaker parakeets, and cockatiels appear to be at greatest risk. While the disease has been seen in cockatoos and macaws, they are not believed to be quite as susceptible. Many avian species, though not all, have been found to develop atherosclerosis in captivity.

Age

Increased age is a significant risk factor. However, while more common in older parrots, Nemeth states that atherosclerosis has been found in birds aged 1 to 42 years. (Nemeth at al, 2016) It is most common in companion parrots over the age of 10.

Gender

Female parrots have been proven statistically to be at greater risk. Female birds in reproductive mode generally have elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins, as well as calcium, creating greater susceptibility.

Diet and Nutrition

“The inclusion of cholesterol in the diet of birds that consume non-animal protein, even as low as 0.25% of the diet, dramatically increases plasma and serum cholesterol levels.” (Petzinger and Bauer, 2013).

Petzinger also mentions a 2003 paper by Bavelaar and Beynen that found that African grey parrots fed a high-fat diet containing palm kernel oil (saturated fatty acids) had increased cholesterol levels.cockatiel-1213758__340

Petzinger also reports on the findings of yet another study from 2012. In this research, a total of 47 cockatiels who were supplemented with fish oil had lower plasma cholesterol than cockatiels fed flaxseed oil. The conclusion? “Thus, dietary fish oil (and possibly dried algae products) may be more beneficial than oils high in A-linolenic acid on reducing risk factors and prevalence of atherosclerosis in avian species.” (Petzinger and Bauer, 2013)

Another nutrient capable of lowering cholesterol levels in birds is pectin. Pectin is the soluble fiber contained in fruit and some vegetables.

The overall amount of food eaten may also contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Overeating and obesity are proven risk factors for mammals. This correlation has been studied in birds with varying conclusions.

Physical Inactivity

Every research paper I read reported a presumed link between inactivity and the development of atherosclerosis. However, I could find no evidence that any link between exercise and this illness had actually been researched in avian species.Conure2

Since such a strong link exists between the two in mammals, including humans, it would be foolish to ignore it here and the papers I read did include recommendations for exercise in companion parrots.

Inflammation

The literature on human health names inflammation in the body as a primary cause for the development of atherosclerosis. In fact, inflammation is currently being discussed in what is being called “a unifying theory of disease.” (Harvard Health, 2006) In other words, inflammation is now considered as a significant factor in the development of many chronic human illnesses.

Nevertheless, inflammation as a process “remains a mystery.” (Anft, 2016) However, scientists are beginning to agree that lifestyle choices like diet and exercise may increase (or reduce)  inflammation.parrot eating cracker

Common foods that cause inflammation, which are often fed to parrots, are fried foods and those containing refined carbohydrates (white flours and sugars).

Co-Infection with Psittacosis

The disease Psittacosis, also known as Parrot Fever, is more accurately referred to as Chlamydia psittaci. This disease is still relatively common among companion parrots, especially those who have come from large collections. While researchers disagree about whether there is a conclusive correlation between infection with Chlamydia and atherosclerosis, some studies appear to agree on this.

Signs and Symptoms

Sadly, the most common sign of atherosclerosis is sudden death. In the late stages, there may be symptoms such as weakness, lethargy, neurological  signs (including seizure-like activity), trouble breathing and exercise intolerance. However, these may be less observable due to parrots spending long hours in cages. It is easier to identify exercise intolerance, for example, in parrots who fly.

At this point in time, diagnosis is extremely difficult. Most people will never imagine that their parrots are ill until they lose them unexpectedly, well before their time. With better imaging techniques, as well as a better understanding of identifying factors in serum chemistries, this may change in the future.

What Can We Do?

Atherosclerosis in companion parrots is still not well-understood. Direct and specific correlations from the human health field may only be suggestive. Thus, we do not have well-defined risk factors that would allow us to target flawless measures for prevention.

FoodSkewerMoreComplexSuggested lifestyle changes reported in the literature include “increasing physical activity by providing more opportunities for locomotion and foraging behaviors and decreasing the stress level  in their captive environment. Limiting dietary excess and obesity also seem to be a reasonable strategy, but species-specific dietary needs should be considered.”(Beaufrere, 2013)

“Birds should be provided ample opportunities for exercise and activities such as foraging, and even flight, if considered safe for the bird. Excessive energy content in the food should be avoided, such as excess carbohydrates and fats. Birds should receive regular preventative veterinary care with periodic bloodwork monitoring.” (Powers, 2015)

Diets that contain relatively high levels of Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the prevalence of the disease. (Petzinger and Bauer, 2013) Nordic NaturalsNewer research indicates that fish oil may be more effective in this than alpha-linolenic acid, the type of omega-3 found in plants, such as in flax seed oil. Supplementation with fish oil may be an excellent addition to the diets of many companion parrots, but this should not be undertaken without the advice of your veterinarian.

Pectin in the diet has also decreased the occurrence of atherosclerosis. (Petzinger and Bauer, 2013) Pectin is the soluble fiber found in fruit. Too much pectin can result in a decrease in the absorption of nutrients from the intestine, however. Thus, fruit should be fed in moderation for most species.

Reducing the overall amount of food, i.e. not over-feeding, can also decrease the prevalence of atherosclerosis. This  information too, however, could be harmful if implemented to the extreme. Hunger and malnutrition do nothing to improve overall health. It is best to consult with your veterinarian about the quantity of foods to offer.

Suggested Action Steps:

After as thorough a review as I could muster with the research I was able to access, I think the following steps are prudent:

  • Identify an avian vet who specializes in birds and schedule annual visits.
  • If your veterinarian tells you your bird is fat, take this seriously and formulate a plan for gradual weight reduction.
  • Discuss with your veterinarian supplementation with fish oil. (The correct dose is important and should be obtained from your vet.) Nordic Naturals is an excellent choice.
  • If you have a female parrot, do everything you can to minimize triggers for the increased production of reproductive hormones. (You should do this for males too.)
    • Discourage a pair bond
    • Avoid cuddling and other highly affectionate interactions
    • Prevent cavity seeking (getting into closets, boxes, etc.)
    • Feed a low-fat, low-carbohydrate diet013
  • Do not feed foods high in saturated fat (fatty meats, butter, margarine, cheese, coconut oil, palm oil, fried food, or snack foods).
  • Do not feed pasta, white rice, or any foods that contain white flour or sugar and other sweeteners.
  • If your bird eats a seed mix as a dietary staple, convert him to a pelleted diet with supplementation of fresh foods.
  • Avoid overfeeding. Remember the size of the creature you are feeding.
  • Encourage foraging and try to incorporate some physical activity into this.
  • Encourage exercise.
    • Determine whether you and your bird might be a candidate for flight in the home.
    • If not, work to discover ways to encourage as much movement as possible.Green And Red Healthy Food
  • Do feed foods high in pectin, in moderation (apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, cherries, strawberries, guava, carrots and peas). Apples are especially high.
  • Do feed foods high in omega-3 fatty acids or that are otherwise known to reduce cholesterol (oats, barley and other grains, walnuts, flax seeds, chia seeds, hemp seeds, edamame, almonds, beans, tofu, salmon)
  • Do feed foods that fight inflammation (green leafy vegetables, blueberries, salmon, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, peppers, grapes, celery, ginger, tumeric)

parrot-2960562__340Atherosclerosis is a scary prospect, given what we now know about the susceptibility of our companion parrots. However, I suspect that we have in our hands the tools for prevention, just as people do. Granted, risk factors outside of our control exist, such as age and gender. However, we do have enough information to take action and keep our parrots as healthy as absolutely possible.

Thank you for reading my blog. I am Pamela Clark, an IAABC Certified Parrot Behavior Consultant. My passion is helping people with parrots by offering behavior consultations and publishing information you can trust. To access free resources, schedule a consultation, or subscribe to my newsletter (which is a different publication from this blog), please visit me at http://www.pamelaclarkonline.com. Until next time!

References:

Anft, M. 2016. “Understanding Inflammation.” Johns Hopkins Health Review. Volume 3, Issue 1. https://www.johnshopkinshealthreview.com/issues/spring-summer-2016/articles/understanding-inflammation

Beaufrere, H.  Dr. Med Vet, PhD, Dip. ECZM, Dip. ABVP. 2013. “Avian Atherosclerosis: Parrots and Beyond. Topics in Medicine and Surgery.http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jepm.2013.10.015https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1557506313001754?via%3Dihub

Bavelaar F. J. & Beynen, A.C. (2004) “Atherosclerosis in Parrots: A Review. Veterinary Quarterly, 26:2, 50-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2004.9695168

Nemeth, N.M. , Gonzaliz-Astudillo, V., Oesterle, P.T. Howerth. E. W.  “A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Avian Diseases Diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Georgia”. Journal of Comparative Pathology. Volume 155, Issues 2–3, August–October 2016, Pages 105-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.05.006

Harvard Health Publishing. April 2006. Harvard Medical School. “Inflammation: A Unifying Theory of Disease. https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/Inflammation_A_unifying_theory_of_disease

Petzinger, C. PhD, Bauer, J, DVM, PhD, Dip. ACVN. 2013. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine. Volume 22, Issue 4, October 2013, Pages 358-365. “Dietary Considerations for Atherosclerosis in Common Companion Avian Species. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jepm.2013.10.013

Petzinger,C BS, Heatley, J DVM, MS, DABVP, DACZM, Cornejo,J BS, Brightsmith, D. PhD; Bauer, J DVM, PhD, DACVN. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. March 1, 2010, Vol. 236, No. 5, Pages 523-528. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.236.5.523

Powers, L. DVM, DABVP. 2015. “The Silent Killer: Atherosclerosis in Pet Birds.” CVC in Washington, D.C. Proceedings.  Published on DVM 360. http://veterinarycalendar.dvm360.com/silent-killer-atherosclerosis-pet-birds-proceedings.